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mRNA vaccines: Operation, efficacy and safety

  In recent years, mRNA-based vaccine technology has become a topic of intense research and discussion, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

   How do mRNA vaccines work?

  MRNA vaccines work on a completely new mechanism compared to classical vaccines, which often use weakened or inactivated pathogens to trigger an immune response. Instead, mRNA vaccines contain a fragment of the genetic code (mRNA) of the pathogenic virus, which encodes one of the virus' proteins, usually a surface protein that allows the immune system to recognize it.

  When the vaccine is administered, the body's cells receive the mRNA and synthesize a viral protein based on it, which is then recognized by the immune system as a foreign pathogen. This leads to an immune response to destroy the viral proteins, thereby teaching the body how to respond to real infections.

   Efficacy of mRNA vaccines

  The mRNA vaccines show extremely high efficacy. For example, Pfizer-BioNTech's vaccine for COVID-19 has an efficacy of about 95%, and Moderna's vaccine has an efficacy of 94.1% after two doses. These are among the few vaccines that have achieved such high efficacy.

  This efficacy is measured by the vaccine's ability to prevent symptomatic COVID-19 infection in controlled clinical trials. Also important is the mRNA vaccine's ability to prevent severe disease, hospitalizations and deaths caused by COVID-19.

   Safety of mRNA vaccines

  All vaccines, including those based on mRNA, must go through a series of rigorous clinical trials focused on evaluating their safety before they are approved for use.

  The mRNA vaccines produced on COVID-19 have gone through three phases of clinical trials, including large studies on tens of thousands of people. These trials were particularly attentive to serious side effects that could indicate the vaccine was unsafe.

  Some side effects have been reported after receiving the mRNA vaccine, such as pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, muscle pain and fever. However, these reactions are usually mild to moderate and pass after a few days.


  mRNA vaccines have opened a new era in the field of immunization, offering effective and safe tools in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. This technology has the potential to revolutionize future vaccination strategies, enabling the rapid creation and adaptation of vaccines to new health challenges. However, as with any new development, continued research is essential to fully understand and realize its potential.


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